Posts Tagged ‘amendments’

I am not sure what I am doing wrong, but this annotated bibliography does not look the way I typed it in microsoft works.

Arm, J., et al. (2009). Negotiating connection between GLBT experience of anti-GLBT

movement of policies. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1), 82-96.


In this article, Jennifer Arm et al. explores the thoughts and feelings of family

members of GLBT individuals. Until recently, most studies focused on how the

family felt once the GLBT member revealed his or her sexual orientation.

Instead, the intention behind this study is to investigate the thoughts and feelings

the families experience in relationship to the legislative initiatives that limit the

rights of the GLBT family member. When considering the physical and

emotional traumas the GLBT community experiences in response to these

initiatives, it seems natural to suggest that their family members, those closest to

them, are also experiencing physical and emotional problems. Arm refers to the

stressors endured by the family as secondary stress, because their stress is viewed

as an indirect, rather than a direct, result of the legislative initiatives. Researchers

are still uncertain whether the family members experience sexual prejudice the

same way the GLBT individual does. Further, they also want to explore whether

limitation of GLBT rights poses a limitation on their family members rights. For

example, Arm et al. points out that in Tennessee a GLBT person can be evicted

solely for the reason of sexual orientation or gender expression. My question is if

these individuals are forced from their homes and they are the primary supporters, are not their family members who are also forced from their homes also being

affected? Are not their rights then being limited? I hope that this study provides me with these answers.

Blackwell, C. W. (2008). Nursing implications in the application of conversion therapies

on gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender clients. Issues in Mental Health, 29, 651-665. doi:10.1080/01612840802048915


Christopher Blackwell describes the historical background of what was once

assumed pathological GLBT-ism. He says it all probably took root in Freud’s

Oedipus Complex Theory. Then later it developed into a crime against God and

religion. Consequently, once viewed as pathological, people developed a belief

in conversion therapy, namely that a GLBT individual could learn how not to be

GLBT. Today religious people still hold to this belief, even though GLBT-ism is

no longer considered a pathological problem. In fact, it is no longer listed in the

DSM-IV as a psychological disorder. Therefore, religion currently appears to be the perpetrator in denying the GLBT community equal rights and opportunity. I hope this article helps me to identify whether or not conversion therapy is possible. I would like to know whether the literature says individuals are born as GLBT and cannot change or that their environment influences their choices and they can change.

Campbell, L.J. (2007). Jack Nichols, gay pioneer: “Have you heard my message?” New York: Harrington Park Press. doi:10.1080/15504280903073564

[?]. (2003). Gay and lesbian rights in the United States: a documentary history.

Westport, CT: Greenwood Press dio:10.1336/03133066966

Graham, A. H. (2008). Hometown Stories. Advocate, (1009). Retrieved from

Academic Search Premier.

In this article, six gay men from six different states in the U.S. explain their

personal experiences of what it is like to live as a gay man in their hometowns.

These hometowns include Asbury Park, NJ, Portsmouth, NH, Ely, NV, Kihei,

Hawaii, Natchitoches, LA, and Dallas, TX. They all point out something that they

share in common. They all discuss whether or not they can feel comfortable

enough to express public affection with their lovers in their hometowns. Being

able to express public affection appears to be very important for them. It is

significant to feel safe in expressing affection toward the one you love without

being judged. Further, they all mention different places they can go to in their

hometowns that are developed for the GLBT community. For instance, Steven

Crespo, from Asbury, NJ, explains that there are gay owned businesses and an annual GLBT pride celebration in Asbury Park. These, along with many other

GLBT gatherings, appear to be very important for all of them. I hope, during the

course of my research, to find more information on Asbury Park, NJ, because this

is my hometown. I also will search for upcoming Asbury Park celebrations and

probably attend one.

Herek, G. M. (1989). Hate crimes against lesbians and gay men: Issues for research

policy. American Psychologist, 44(6), 948-955. doi:10.1037/0003-006x.44.6.948

In this article, Gregory Herek discusses hate crimes in extensive detail. He gives a

clearly stated definition. He says that GLBT hate crimes are dangerous to both

homosexuals and heterosexuals, because at any time heterosexuals can be

mistaken for homosexuals. Then he gives specific occurrences and examples of

hate crimes in order to strengthen his research. Herek feels people are not as

aware of these hate crimes as they should be. Further, there are many hate crimes

that have never been reported as a result of fear, especially fear of continued

harassment. People of the GLBT community have been viciously harassed,

beaten, and killed for no other reason but being GLBT. I hope this article

provides me with a deeper look into the statistics of hate crimes committed

against GLBT individuals. Further, I would like to know more about the specific

occurrences of actual hate crimes that have taken place throughout history.

Herek, G. M., et al. (2009). Internalized stigma among sexual minority adults: Insights

from a social psychological perspective. Journal of Counseling, 56(1), 32-43.


Researchers describe the many different internal stigmas a GLBT individual might

experience. Some of these stigmas include obsessing about the possible

occurrence of a hate crime or believing in negative stereotypes as true about the

self. In fact, this study attempts to reveal whether or not these stigmas cause

GLBT individuals to feel badly about themselves. As Herek et al. points out,

many beliefs play a role in creating these stigmas like the heterosexual

assumption. The heterosexual assumption is when the consensus seems to be

that everyone is heterosexual in a specific environment such as the workplace.

GLBT individuals develop negative stigmas that they internalize in response to

these stereotypical beliefs. For example, a GLBT person, in response to the

heterosexual assumption, might perceive that it is unacceptable to be GLBT.

Consequently, GLBT individuals develop negative self-concepts. I hope that

this article reveals to me many more beliefs, like the heterosexual assumption,

which develop negative stigmas and self-concepts among the GLBT community.

Herek, G.M., et al. (1999). Psychological sequelae of hate-crime victimization among

Lesbian, gay, bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,

67(6), 945-951. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.67.6.945

In this article, researchers compare hate crimes to nonbiased crimes. The victims

of hate crimes report higher levels of depression, anger, anxiety, and

posttraumatic stress. Further, hate crimes are less likely than nonbiased crimes to

be reported to the police. The source of the hate crime, being GLBT, does not go

away. Yet the source for many criminal victimization crimes, such as wearing

gold during a public event, can be avoided in the future. Therefore, the trauma a

GLBT individual experiences after enduring a hate crime could remain constant,

because they cannot avoid being GLBT. Eventually, these constant worries and

concerns can overpower the GLBT individual’s sense of self. Because sexual

prejudice is still widely accepted, the GLBT community is vulnerable to the

psychological effects of hate crime victimization. Present society still feeds the

GLBT community the message that they deserve to be victimized. I hope this

article provides me with some specific examples of how hate crimes cause the

GLBT community to experience trauma more severely than those who experience

nonbiased crimes. I would like to make connections between this article and the

other articles I have chosen that discuss hate crimes and self-concepts among the

GLBT communities.

Letellier, P. (2009). Transactions: A transgender news update. Lesbian News, 34(10).

Retrieved from Academic Search Premier Database.

Patrick Letellier describes a hate crime committed against a transwoman. She was

murdered by her boyfriend after she revealed to him that she once was a man.

According to this article, many transwomen have been killed this way. Most of

the perpetrators, in Turkey and the U.S., have received reduced sentences on the

notion that when they were first told about the true identity of their lovers, they

instantly experienced uncontrollable panic. The government of these countries

has been accused of helping these hate crimes to persist. In California, there have

been court rulings that allow birth certificate changes, namely change in gender

identity, for those born in the state. These types of rulings are necessary in order

to protect the GLBT community from hate crimes. One glance at a birth

certificate could mean one more dead. I hope this article, along with

others like it, provide me with a deeper look into the personal experiences that

GLBT individuals have had with hate crimes. Further, this article will provide me

with a deeper understanding of how court rulings influence the day to day lives of

GLBT persons.

Levitt, H. M., et al. (2009). Balancing Dangers: GLBT experience in a time of anti-

GLBT legislation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1), 67-81.


Heidi Levitt et al. attempts to determine the level of minority stress GLBT

individuals experience as a result of living in a society that is currently supporting

anti-GLBT legislation. She examines the GLBT experience of minority stress by

comparing their stress to Harrell’s six types of racism-related stress. Further, she

and other researchers conduct a qualitative study in order to reveal how GLBT

individuals perceive the anti-GLBT legislation and society. During this study, the

researchers ask the subjects many open-ended questions in order to elicit the true

thoughts and feelings of the GLBT community. The responses the GLBT

subjects provide clearly reveal that the anti-GLBT legislation influences them to

feel alienated. They struggle with feelings of personal inadequacy as a result of

being dehumanized. I really hope this article helps me to make connections

between the traumatic feelings GLBT individuals experience in response to hate

crimes and the feelings they experience in response to an anti-GLBT legislation and anti-GLBT society.

Rostosky, S. S., et al. (2008). Marriage amendments and psychological distress in

lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56(1),

56-66. doi:10.1037/a0013609

Sharon Rostosky and other researchers examine whether marriage amendments

impact the level of minority stress and psychological distress the GLBT person

experiences. They conclude that the GLBT individuals living in states that

have passed marriage amendments do experience higher levels of minority stress

and psychological distress. The authors then go on to explain the different types

of amendments that have taken place. For example, in June of 2008, forty-five

states refused to recognize civil marriage. In this study, researchers provided

participants with an online survey, which asked them questions about how many

times they experienced negative messages through the media about being GLBT. They were asked to rate their answers on a scale between 0-5, etc. Therefore, this

study attempts to determine the influence of an anti-GLBT legislation

quantitatively rather than qualitatively. In the course of my research, this study

will probably help me to perceive the GLBT experience quantitatively also.

Further, there is important information contained within this article about the

marriage amendments, which helps me to further understand the thoughts and

feelings the GLBT community might be living as a result of these anti-GLBT


Silver, D. (2009). The Cruelty of Expectation. Lesbian News, 34(10). Retrieved from

Academic Search Premier Database.

Diane Silver discusses the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) and its many effects

on the GLBT community. She begins by providing a real life example. Tan, a

nonpermanent U.S. resident, faces deportation, because she is not permitted to marry her lover. Further, she will be removed from her family and the one she loves. If she was permitted to marry, all of this could be prevented. She could then receive permanent residency as a U.S. citizen. Silver then explains many other difficulties the GLBT community faces, because Congress has not yet changed these acts. Along with the GLBT community, entire families are suffering as a result of DOMA. Parents are losing jobs and homes. Silver says that Obama should fulfill his promise and Congress should act. I believe this article will help me to see the world through the eyes of the GLBT community, because it provides specific examples of how DOMA is negatively impacting their lives.

Strickland, Bonnie R. (1995). Research on sexual orientation and human development:

A commentary. Developmental Psychology, 31(1), 137-140.


The development of sexual orientation is thought to have many influences.

In this article, Bonnie Strickland suggests that sexual orientation develops as a

result of genetic, prenatal, and environmental factors. She says that gender

identity develops early and is quite difficult to transform. She then goes on and

gives specific examples of these early childhood characteristics. For example,

homosexual adult women report being tomboyish as children, such as playing

sports and engaging in competitive behavior. Homosexual adult men frequently

report the opposite. They typically report that they did not play sports as children

or engage in competitive activity. This is only one example of the many she

provides. Overall, GLBT individuals, along with their children, tend to be

emotionally healthy. I feel that this article, and others like it, will help me

discover whether GLBT individuals are born as GLBT or develop GLBT

characteristics overtime as a product of their environment.

Wright, Ellen. (2005). Report shows sexual orientation is second leading category of

bias crimes. Lesbian News, 30(6). Retrieved from Academic Search Premier


Ellen Wright provides statistics comparing the amount of hate crimes each

minority group experiences. GLBT crimes are rated the second highest category,

with racial crimes being the first. Yet in 2003, six GLBT murders were reported,

whereas four racial murders were reported. However, these statistics only

resemble a small number of the actual amount of hate crimes reported, because

these reports were only taken from eleven different regions across the country. In

fact, the FBI continues to undercount the actual number of GLBT crimes

reported, even though in actuality they have only increased. Further, they do not

collect any statistics on transgender people. Wright stresses that with the increase

of GLBT visibility, the FBI needs to accurately record these crimes. The public,

especially the GLBT

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